The first five stages are system development proper, and the last stage is the long-term exploitation.
Following a period of use (with maintenance as needed), the information system may be either phased out or upgraded.
The principal tasks of information systems specialists involve modifying the applications for their employer’s needs and integrating the applications to create a coherent systems architecture for the firm.
Generally, only smaller applications are developed internally.
The later stages of development include such implementation activities as training users and modifying the organizational processes in which the system will be used.
Once the need for a specific information system has been established, the system has to be acquired.
This is generally done in the context of the already existing information systems architecture of the firm.
Information systems are a major corporate asset, with respect both to the benefits they provide and to their high costs.
Therefore, organizations have to plan for the long term when acquiring information systems and services that will support business initiatives.
At the same time, firms have to be responsive to emerging opportunities.